- MacAulay, D. 1992. The more common ones are: Velarised /l̪ˠ/ has 6 main realisations as shown on the map:[7]. The only trace of their original palatalisation is a glide found before or after back vowels, e.g. Phonetically and historically, these resemble the tones of Norway, Sweden and western Denmark; these languages have tonal contours typical for monosyllabic words and those for disyllabic words. Note that phonologically, /a/ behaves both as a front or back vowel depending on the geographical area and vowel length. a bheil thu a' faighinn cus? Scottish Gaelic. Category 2: 'diphthongs' and 'triphthongs'. Occasionally, there are irregular occurrences of the epenthetic vowel, for example in Glaschu/kl̪ˠas̪əxu/('Glasgow'). Welsh naturalist Edward Lhuyd published the earliest major work on Scottish Gaelic after collecting data in the Scottish Highlands between 1699 and 1700, in particular data on Argyll Gaelic and the now obsolete dialects of north-east Inverness-shire. phonetically velar or velarised consonants) and "slender" (i.e. Dec 18, 2013 - Scottish Gaelic phonology this is beautiful everybody who's Scottish should repin this support your people [19] Furthermore, they are disappearing entirely among younger speakers even in Lewis.[20]. In those dialects that do not have the length distinction, the syllable nucleus is often lengthened instead (MacAulay 2002): - "gall" 'foreigner' [kaL:] or [kauL] in dialects that don't have consonant length. As nasalized fricatives are sometimes thought to be physiologically impossible (see Shosted 2006 for discussion). They found conclusive evidence that the distinction in that dialect (Bernara) is in aspiration, not voicing. if a dialect has preaspiration with /pʰ/, it will also have it in the other places of articulation. ), The Celtic Languages. In the Gaelic of Sutherland and the MacKay Country, this is the case, while in all other areas full voicing is allophonic with regional variation, voicing occurs in certain environments, such as within breath groups and following homorganic nasals (see below). 1998). They also note that preaspiration is considerably longer in duration than regular ('post-') aspiration. London: Routledge. Certain consonants (in particular the fricatives [h x ç ɣ ʝ v] and the lenis coronals [l n ɾ ɾʲ]) are rare in initial position except as a result of lenition. Traditional Celtic literature has a standard notation for this distinction: 'Tense' consonants are indicated by capital letters, and 'slender' consonants are indicated by a following apostrophe: There is a phonemic contrast in length for sonorants in some dialects. Hamburg: Helmut Buske. Aspirated stops are realized as preaspirated (with a small amount of post-aspiration as well) word-medially (Ladefoged et al. The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Scottish Gaelic pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.. See Scottish Gaelic phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Scottish Gaelic, and Scottish Gaelic orthography for the exact correspondence between sounds and letters in Scottish Gaelic. Here, we refer to the language as ‘Gaelic’, pronounced in British English as /ɡalɪk/, as is customary within the Gaelic-speaking community. Welsh naturalist Edward Lhuyd published the earliest major work on Scottish Gaelic after collecting data in the Scottish Highlands between 1699 and 1700, in particular data on Argyll Gaelic and the now obsolete dialects of north-east Inverness-shire. The first set, [iə], [ia], and /uə/, are a result of the breaking of Archaic Irish long vowels (Gillies 1993). This page was last modified on 23 April 2015, at 19:33. The /s̪/ is not lenited when it appears before /m p t̪ k/. We have created a browser extension. There are often wide variations in vowel quality in epenthetic vowels, as illustrated by a map showing the pronunciations of "dearbh."[8]. Descriptions of the language have largely focused on the phonology. MacAulay (1992) mentions that some dialects have a three-way distinction ([p-pʰ-b]), but notes that it is less common than a binary distinction in aspiration. For example, blocked lenition in the surname Caimbeul ('Campbell') (vs Camshron 'Cameron') is an incident of fossilised blocked lenition; blocked lenition in air an taigh salach "on the dirty house" (vs air a' bhalach mhath 'on the good boy') is an example of the productive lenition blocking rule. [11] The occurrence of preaspiration follows a hierarchy of c > t > p; i.e. Gaelic clock. Lenition may be blocked when homorganic consonants (i.e. This distinction resulted from a 'fortis' and 'lenis' version of each consonant (now called 'tense' and 'lax'), as well as a broad/slender distinction for each of these. The Celtic Languages. In open syllables, [i] and [u] can also occur in unstressed position (Gillies 1993). Most dialects of Scottish Gaelic now only have a three-way distinction [1]. This article is about the phonology of the Scottish Gaelic language. There is no standard variety of Scottish Gaelic; although statements below are about all or most dialects, the north-western dialects (Hebrides, Skye and the Northwest Highlands) are discussed more than others as they represent the majority of speakers. Scottish Gaelic Studies 15: 20-73. The sound system of Scottish Gaelic is remarkable for its large number of vowels and dipthongs with contrasts in both length and nasalization, as well as for its 'dual sequence' of stops and sonorants. The phonology of a Perthsire idiolect. On the mainland, no clear dialect boundaries have been established to date but the main areas are generally assumed to be Argyllshire, Perthshire, Moidart/Ardnamurchan, Wester Ross and Sutherland. http://akerbeltz.org/index.php?title=Fuaimean_na_Gàidhlig, https://gaelicgrammar.org/~gaelic/mediawiki/index.php?title=Sounds_of_Scottish_Gaelic&oldid=4760. In this category, vowels in digraphs/trigraphs that are next to a neighbouring consonant are for all intents and purposes part of the consonant, showing the broad or slender status of the consonant. There are often wide variations in vowel quality in epenthetic vowels, as illustrated by a map showing the pronunciations of "dearbh." The phonemic analysis of Scottish Gaelic. Another example is the tonal difference between ainm [ɛnɛm] and anam [anam], the latter of which has the tonal contour appropriate to a disyllable. Schwa [ə] at the end of a word is dropped when followed by a word beginning with a vowel. The length distinction is usually neutralized in unstressed syllables. Occasionally, there are irregular occurrences of the epenthetic vowel, for example in Glaschu /kl̪ˠas̪əxu/ ('Glasgow'). also tombaca ('tobacco') [t̪ʰomˈbaʰkə]. velars and labials). History of the discipline Edit. There are two main types of diphthongs. 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